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The economic crisis of the s was long past. But the fierce political debates that led first to the Second Reform Act of and then to the battles for the enfranchisement of women were accompanied by a deepening crisis of belief. Late Victorian fiction may express doubts and uncertainties, but in aesthetic terms it displays a new sophistication and self-confidence. Initially a critic and translator, she was influenced, after the loss of her Christian faith, by the ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach and Auguste Comte. Her advanced intellectual interests combined with her sophisticated sense of the novel form to shape her remarkable fiction.

Her early novels— Adam Bede , The Mill on the Floss , and Silas Marner —are closely observed studies of English rural life that offer, at the same time, complex contemporary ideas and a subtle tracing of moral issues. Her masterpiece, Middlemarch —72 , is an unprecedentedly full study of the life of a provincial town, focused on the thwarted idealism of her two principal characters. George Eliot is a realist, but her realism involves a scientific analysis of the interior processes of social and personal existence.

Her fellow realist Anthony Trollope published his first novel in but only established his distinctive manner with The Warden , the first of a series of six novels set in the fictional county of Barsetshire and completed in This sequence was followed by a further series, the six-volume Palliser group —80 , set in the world of British parliamentary politics. Trollope published an astonishing total of 47 novels, and his Autobiography is a uniquely candid account of the working life of a Victorian writer. His prose style is eccentric and his achievement uneven.

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In the s the three-volume novel, with its panoramic vistas and proliferating subplots, began to give way to more narrowly focused one-volume novels. The flowering of realist fiction was also accompanied, perhaps inevitably, by a revival of its opposite, the romance.

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The s had produced a new subgenre, the sensation novel, seen at its best in the work of Wilkie Collins. Wells make it possible to speak of a full-scale romance revival. At the same time, though, suspense also refers to the action of actually suspending judgment as both a Victorian reader and writer.

Additionally, judgment must also be suspended as a reader makes assumptions based upon his unique beliefs. Doing so brings us back to the earlier definition of suspense, in which the reader is meant to feel anxious about the rising action in a narrative. If a reader refuses to suspend his judgment in his assumptions, beliefs, and subjective interpretations of reality, he will not experience the pleasures of suspense that are meant to be felt.

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In general, when a secret emerges in Victorian fiction, and the suspense is lifted, things often turn out to be entirely different than what was expected. This realization is meant to be enjoyable for the reader, as it has most likely kept his attention while he has read the story.

Also, in Great Expectations , the very fact that there are two different endings to the novel serves to create suspense for readers, and further promotes more thought-provoking discussion. The End of Realism Realism characterized such a valiant parting from what readers had come to imagine from the novel. Critics, in some occasions, reasoned that Realism seemed to focus largely on any negative views of life. Henry James, as a prime example, was criticized for his loquaciousness.

English Literature - Victorian Age: Social, Cultural, Political and Economic context

Realism had turned to Naturalism towards the end of the nineteenth century. With Naturalism, writers defined their character using their heredity and history.


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Qualities that people found distasteful in Realism, which was the fixation with character and the thoroughly dull plots, was intensified by Naturalism. The most popular novels of the Victorian age were realistic, thickly plotted, crowded with characters, and long. Describing contemporary life and entertainment for the middle class. So the popularity of the realistic Victorian Novel would be entirely dependent on the people who read them.

The realistic Victorian novels became popular because it was the first time characters in a novel were similar and connected to the people of the middle class. The number of periodicals that were produced were greatly increased during this time period. By the early 19th century, there were 52 London papers and over other titles. There was a massive growth in overall circulation of major events, information and weekly publication of literature.

In and the tax on newspapers was increased. Unwilling to pay this fee, hundreds of untaxed newspapers made their appearance. The development of the press was greatly assisted by the gradual abolition of the taxes on periodicals.

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Both of these developments made the newspaper more affordable to a greater percentage of the population. The book publishing industry grew throughout the 19th century. There was a dramatic increase in literacy along with the growth of libraries and public schools. This provided a rapidly growing market for books. The introduction of technological advances allowed more volume at less cost.

During the 19th century, big publishing firms emerged and some of these companies remain active in the industry today. In the 19th century practices of paying authors began to standardize. Publishers paid a percentage based on the price of the book and number of books sold. During the Victorian period, the communication industry including publishing and printing of books accelerated the processes of economic, social and cultural change by dramatically increasing the volume and speed of which information, news and entertainment flowed through society. Again, Dickens will be the main focus, with his Pickwick Papers having sold 40, copies per issue at the time Part 15 came into print, and then selling , copies by in book form and , by Furthermore, The first issue of David Copperfield sold 25, copies between and To add a bit of perspective to these numbers, at the beginning of the 19th century, books were a luxury.

The price had recently rose to unprecedented heights, cutting out the middle class, even though they could have been the biggest consumers. Between and the average price of a book was said to have declined by forty percent, but that forty percent was off of an abnormally high starting price. The Victorian Era was a period of great social and political reform, especially regarding the role of women.

Women began actively seeking equal social and legal rights as men, and one of the main ways they attempted to draw attention to their plight was through writing. Voting and property rights, education opportunities, and employment restrictions were all issues women of 19th century Britain faced. Many women decided to address the issues in writing and publishing their work in order to make their voices heard and demand equality. Some of the more popular female novelists of this time include Charlotte Bronte and George Eliot. Many women of the Victorian Era published their work anonymously or under pseudonyms to ensure that their works would be given the same merit that works by male authors were granted.

Using gender ambiguous pseudonyms, which all of the Bronte sisters did, allowed female novelists the freedom to create characters exactly the way they wanted without fear of being disrespected or not taken seriously because they were created by women. The New Woman was the opposite of the stereotypical Victorian Woman who was uneducated, reliant entirely on a man, and led an entirely domestic life. Instead, the New Woman was intelligent, independent, educated, and self-supporting. In her novels, Bronte created strong female heroines who possessed free thought, intellect, and strong moral character.

She wrote for the women she saw as being oppressed by society, which included teachers, governesses, and spinsters. She felt that all of these women were imprisoned by society or circumstances beyond their control, and Bronte was impelled to speak out for them in her writing Lowes. Unmarried, middle-class women either had to turn to prostitution or be a governess in order to earn a living.

Some have later dates, but, all are antique. Up for sale is this beautiful antique decorative leather bound copy of The Opal for It is illustrated with 8 gorgeous hand colored plates and a hand colored illustrated title page. The novel first appeared as a twenty-four part serial in J. Wood's weekly magazine, The Gentlewoman, in and The Token from , and The Token and Atlantic Souvenir from to was an annual anthology of poems, stories and essays, illustrated with engravings, edited by Samuel Goodrich.

It was designed to be a gift book for Christmas ans New Years. Published in by George Clark of Boston. Edward Nares - was an Historian, theologian, author. Published by A.

Burt Co. Solid condition. The original legend concerns a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to the Crucifixion and was then cursed to walk the earth until the Second Coming. Results Pagination - Page 1 1 2. Sponsored Listings. Got one to sell? Make an Offer. Danger Wounded in the House of a Friend T. Arthur Victorian HC Decorative. Shop by Category. Printing Year see all. Not Specified. Binding see all. Fine Binding. Softcover, Wraps. Special Attributes see all.

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Victorian Literature | Representations

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