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Get PDF A Patients Guide to Retinal Diseases (1st Edition)

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Common retinal conditions include floaters, macular degeneration, diabetic eye disease, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. There are other issues that can occur, but these conditions are some of the most common and serious that a person can experience. If you notice spots in your vision, then you have floaters. They can be age-related, but they can also occur in cases of severe nearsightedness.

The jelly substance the eye is made of becomes more liquid and small clumps cast a shadow on the retina. However, floaters can also be the result of a torn retina.

Optic Nerve and Retinal Imaging Methods - Medical Clinical Policy Bulletins | Aetna

This is due to fluid accumulating behind the retina, causing it to separate from the eye. Macular degeneration is an age-related condition of the retina that causes central vision loss. It is very common in individuals over the age of 55, with approximately 10 million people in the United States suffering from the condition. The symptoms tend to involve blurry central vision, warped straight lines, or difficulty focusing on fine details.


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Blind spots can develop as the condition worsens. Fortunately, there are treatments, such as an antioxidant supplement that can slow the progression, blocking unhealthy blood vessel development, and several others. Those with diabetes are more susceptible to retinal damage. There are many people throughout Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, suffering from diabetes, and their eyes are paying a price.

They notice blurry vision, double vision, floaters or dark spots, pressure or pain in at least one eye, trouble with peripheral vision, flashing lights, or rings. The good news is that laser surgery is a treatment that can help a person suffering from diabetic eye disease.

Dr. Mandeep Singh - Ophthalmologist

It is also important to note that diabetics are also at increased risk of glaucoma and cataracts. As mentioned earlier, retinal detachment can occur when too much fluid accumulates behind the retina, causing separation. However, there are other risk factors that increase the chances of retinal detachment. They are:. The presence of floaters indicates that retinal detachment may be occurring. There may also be flashes in the eye.

If you suddenly notice floaters or you have had them and they have increased, see your doctor immediately. Other symptoms include a decrease in vision or seeing a gray curtain in your field of vision. Retinitis pigmentosa describes genetic conditions that can cause retinal degeneration. Vision loss gradually declines as the rods and cones die. Usually, rods are affected first, and then the degeneration moves to the cones. One of the earliest symptoms is night blindness, but some people experience central vision loss or color blindness.

Adolescents and young adults are especially vulnerable since this is an inherited condition. If you notice any changes in your vision, it is very important to have your eyes checked as soon as possible. While some changes may be benign, others can indicate more serious conditions.

If you want to know more about retinal disorders, or if you would like to set up an eye exam, contact Eye Care Specialists in Scranton or Wilkes-Barre today! Enter your information below to join our mailing list. The condition can be treated with injections of angiogenesis inhibitors into the eye, which blocks the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF , a protein that promotes blood vessel growth. A patient might receive regular injections over a long period, which is why the question of side effects was on the mind of some Chat participants. The news on long-term side effects is generally positive.

Mettu predicts there will be a host of new treatment opportunities in the future, around extended-release treatments. The mechanism of action will be similar to some of our currently available treatments, but they will last longer, he says. There are other research initiatives looking into the possibility of eye drops for AMD treatment, notes Mettu, but that research is still in the very early stages.

Other questions concerned when a person might stop injection treatments, or at least reduce their frequency, if vision has improved. Mettu cautioned against decreasing injection treatment prematurely. All of the studies now show that, on average, patients need between six to eight shots a year. Some patients may need fewer, some patients more, but long-term, sustained treatment is important for disease control.

So, maintaining a regular schedule of treatment to suppress the disease is critically important for maintaining long-term good vision. Another way Mettu describes the goal of injections is to make Wet AMD go dormant with this treatment. That means:. If there is still active disease after the initial three treatments, doctors consider alternative approaches, which vary by retina specialists.

New Landmarks, Signs, and Findings in Optical Coherence Tomography

These may include switching to another type of anti-VEGF medication, or to certain types of laser treatments as an adjunct to other treatment. While medical scientists search for more effective and less burdensome AMD treatments, Mettu reminds us of the purpose of eye injections for wet AMD:.

This content was last updated on: May 14, The information provided here is a public service of the BrightFocus Foundation and should not in any way substitute for personalized advice of a qualified healthcare professional; it is not intended to constitute medical advice. Please consult your physician for personalized medical advice.

BrightFocus Foundation does not endorse any medical product, therapy, or resources mentioned or listed in this article. These foci decreased in number and size after initiation of therapy. In 1 patient, flow void areas re-appeared after cessation of therapy without any detectable change on ICGA. This patient soon developed clinical recurrence requiring re-initiation of immunosuppression. The authors concluded that OCTA allowed high-resolution imaging of inflammatory foci suggestive of choriocapillaris hypo-perfusion in acute VKH disease non-invasively.

They stated that OCTA may be very helpful in the follow-up of such patients. Sub-retinal membranous structures showed the highest positive predictive value The authors concluded that OCT-related morphological signs had a relatively high predictive value for the diagnosis of acute VKH.

Sub-foveal choroidal thickness SFCT was measured by one masked trained observer. A total of pairs of scans were obtained from 48 patients. During the acute uveitic stage, FA typically reveals numerous punctate hyper-fluorescent foci at the level of the RPE in the early stage of the study followed by pooling of dye in the sub-retinal space in areas of neurosensory detachment.

The vast majority of patients show disc leakage, but CME and retinal vascular leakage are uncommon. In the convalescent and chronic recurrent stages, focal RPE loss and atrophy produce multiple hyper-fluorescent window defects without progressive staining … OCT may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of serous macular detachments, CME, and choroidal neovascular membranes. Kim and colleagues noted that whereas Alzheimer disease AD is associated with inner retina thinning visualized by SD-OCT, these researchers sought to determine if the retina has a distinguishing biomarker for frontotemporal degeneration FTD.

Using a cross-sectional design, these investigators examined retinal structure in 38 consecutively enrolled patients with FTD and 44 controls using a standard SD-OCT protocol.

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Retinal layers were segmented with the Iowa Reference Algorithm. The authors concluded that FTD was associated with outer retina thinning, and this thinning correlated with disease severity. The authors stated that one drawback of this study was the different demographics of controls and patients. While all patients were recruited consecutively, differences reflected the different populations of FTD versus controls recruited during a routine eye examination. Another drawback of these findings was the limited number of patients in the non-tauopathy subgroups; this must be considered before generalizing the results to all patients with FTD.

viptarif.ru/wp-content/messages/2066.php These investigators stated that the findings of this study suggested that measurements of retinal thickness have the potential to serve as biomarkers for FTD and may relate to disease severity; future work should focus on direct comparison of AD patients with FTD patients and comparison of the different subgroups of FTD using similar methods and longitudinal studies with autopsy confirmation.

In a retrospective, observational study, Xu and colleagues examined the sensitivity of OCT in detecting prior unilateral optic neuritis. Patients who presented from January 1, , to January 6, , with unilateral optic neuritis and OCT available at least 3 months after the attack were enrolled in this trial.

They excluded patients with concomitant glaucoma or other optic neuropathies. The authors concluded that these findings supported the use of OCT in the diagnosis of prior optic neuritis, especially in those with unilateral presentation. These researchers stated that although larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the optimal criteria for identifying pathologic thinning of the inner retina by OCT, it is a highly sensitive method of detecting a history of unilateral optic neuritis. The authors stated that this study had several drawbacks.

Because this patient cohort consisted of unilateral optic neuritis, these findings were not directly applicable to patients with bilateral optic neuritis or patients with prior episodes of optic neuritis in the concomitant eye.