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To keep track of who owns what data—and where any given data's pieces have been distributed—Enigma stores that metadata in the bitcoin blockchain, the unforgeable record of messages copied to thousands of computers to prevent counterfeit and fraud in the bitcoin economy. Like other bitcoin-style decentralized crypto schemes, Enigma's architecture can seem almost like a Rube Goldberg machine in its complexity. For a full technical explanation, read the project's whitepaper here.

In addition to that whitepaper, Zyskind and Nathan say they plan to publish the open-source code for the project by the end of the summer. Only by combining enough of those pieces can they decrypt the original data.

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It's important to note that any new and unproven encryption scheme should be approached with caution. But if Enigma's encryption works as its creators promise, it would have vast implications. Private databases could be hosted and queried in the cloud without any risk of revealing the database's contents. It could also enable a search engine to return search results without ever seeing the user's unencrypted search request.

Enigma's creators suggest the project could also enable Internet users to safely share all sorts of data with pharmaceutical companies and advertisers without any privacy risks—the companies could run computations on the encrypted data and get useful results without the access to see any specific user's data. People will actually be willing to share more. If you have guaranteed privacy, data analysis can be a lot more powerful.

The Enigma creators are far from the first to suggest a scheme for achieving homomorphic encryption's goals; IBM researcher Craig Gentry achieved a major breakthrough in when he came up with the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme—a mathematical technique that allowed any computation to be performed on encrypted data with no security compromises and none of Enigma's complex network of distributed computers. But Gentry's method was also extremely slow: Performing a computation such as a Google search using it could take as much as a trillion times longer than doing the same task without encryption.

Since then, Gentry has dramatically sped up the process, but it still multiplies the time necessary for a calculation by close to a millionfold. Enigma's creators say their decentralized encryption process, on the other hand, only multiplies the computing requirements for a calculation by less than fold.

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They hope to further reduce that in the near future to a tenfold increase. Palluth set up a business making electronic equipment, including radios the size of a credit card for Polish secret agents.

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Polish codebreakers Antoni Palluth left and his cousin Sylwester stand in front of a chart of North African military operations in , when they were working with French intelligence officer Gustave Bertrand in southern France. In , the German navy began to send messages that were scrambled in a more random way, making them almost impossible to decipher. They were encoded using the typewriter-like Enigma machine.

The keyboard was wired so that typing one letter lit up a different one in a set of bulbs on top. Rotors altered the path of the electric circuit with every keystroke. The machines were commercially available but modified for German military use. Without knowing the precise setting of a machine, there was no way to unpick the code. They worked quietly in basements and in a bunker deep in the woods. At the helm was Gwido Langer, a Pole who had worked in radio intelligence for the Austrian army.

Meanwhile, in France, Gustave Bertrand headed the equivalent unit. The French had a more conventional approach to gathering information: good agents, clandestine meetings and generous pay-offs.


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  • Bertrand managed two formidable spies. Rudolf Stallmann — code name Rex — was a German card-sharp who had posed as a baron to fleece casino-goers; he picked up languages and people with ease. Schmidt supplied cases of military documents to the French, which Rex received and Bertrand and his colleagues photographed in hotel bathrooms. Bertrand built up a network for sharing intelligence, including with Poland and the United Kingdom. In , he agreed to supply Langer with German military documents if the Poles would pass back decrypted German messages.

    One of those documents, passed on by Schmidt, was a manual for Enigma. Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski relaxes in the French chateau where the codebreakers were working to crack the Enigma machine codes in They discovered that a panel added to the front of the machine altered the settings, although they still could not tell how the device was wired.

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    They set about collecting coded messages and applied their wits to find clues. Sometimes the senders made telling mistakes. We apologize for the inconvenience. If you are trying to register for LISA19 , please complete your registration before or after this time period.

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