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You can simply remove the item from your cart. Electro-refining also sometimes called electrowinning is electroplating on a large scale. Copper plays a major role in the electrical industry as it is very conductive and is used in electric cables. One of the problems though is that copper must be pure if it is to be an effective current carrier.
One of the methods used to purify copper, is electrowinning copper ore is processed into impure blister copper , which is then deposited as pure copper through electroplating. The copper electrowinning process is as follows:. Figure The chlorine-alkali chloralkali industry is an important part of the chemical industry, which produces chlorine and sodium hydroxide through the electrolysis of the raw material brine.
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Remember that electrolytic cells are used to transform reactants into products by turning electric current into chemical potential energy. To overcome this problem the chlorine and sodium hydroxide must be separated from each other so that they don't react. There are three industrial processes that have been designed to overcome this problem. All three methods involve electrolytic cells.
Step 1: Test of Electrolyser Module
The sodium reacts with water in the vessel and produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, while the mercury returns to the electrolytic cell to be used again. In a mercury cell the sodium dissolves in the liquid mercury to form a liquid amalgam of the two metals. Video: This method only produces a fraction of the chlorine and sodium hydroxide that is used by industry as it has certain disadvantages:. In the past the effluent was released into lakes and rivers, causing mercury to accumulate in fish and other animals feeding on the fish.
Today, the brine is treated before it is discharged so that the environmental impact is lower. To separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide, the two half-cells were traditionally separated by a porous asbestos diaphragm, which needed to be replaced every two months. This was damaging to the environment, as large quantities of asbestos had to be disposed. Asbestos is toxic to humans, and causes cancer and lung problems. Today, the asbestos is being replaced by other polymers, which do not need to be replaced as often, and are not toxic.
The membrane cell Figure The main differences are:.